Views: 2 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-09-28 Origin: Site
Recently, the Agricultural Mechanization Management Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the Agricultural Mechanization General Station of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, and the Expert Steering Group of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs on Mechanization of Crop Production Processes jointly issued the "Technical Guidance for Mechanization of Rapeseed Production in Southern Winter Idle Fields". It aims to promote the mechanized development of rapeseed production, strengthen the integration of agricultural machinery and agronomy, promote the improvement of the level of mechanized operations, and support the expansion of rapeseed with mechanized power.
Among them, it is proposed that the rapeseed in the winter idle fields in the south should be suitable for moisture content, and the mechanical planting methods are divided into three types: mechanical live broadcast, drone aerial sowing and mechanical transplanting. Various types of mechanical seeding technical guidance are as follows:
1. Mechanical live broadcast
The sowing period is generally from late September to early and mid-October, and the previous crops are harvested in time for planting, and early sowing is recommended. The sowing row spacing is 20-30cm, the seeding rate is 3-4.5kg/hm2, the sowing depth is 5-25mm, and the number of rapeseed plants should be ≥375,000 plants/hm2. When the sowing date is delayed, the seeding rate should be increased appropriately.
In the selection of seeding equipment, a combined direct seeding machine with a variety of processes such as rotary tillage, stubble removal, ridge raising, furrowing, sowing, and fertilization should be selected according to soil moisture, previous crop varieties and the use of local seeders. Or less, no-tillage rapeseed seeder, etc.
2. UAV flying
The aerial sowing of rapeseed by drone can appropriately alleviate the contradiction between the stubble connection in the winter idle fields in the south, and the operation efficiency is high, and compared with the ground seeding machinery, it is less affected by the field conditions. Generally, after completing the previous rice harvesting and preparation of land preparation such as ditching and rotary tillage, drones are used for aerial sowing of rapeseed. If the soil moisture is suitable before the harvest of the previous rice, the rapeseed can be sown 5-7 days before the harvest of the rice, and the contradiction between the stubble can be alleviated by sowing in advance. The seeding rate for aerial sowing of rapeseed is 4.5-6kg/hm2. With the delay of the sowing date, the seeding rate can be appropriately increased. The aerial seeding operation is based on a height of about 3m, a speed of about 5m/s, and a broadcast width of about 4.5m. The specific parameters are fine-tuned according to the model used. Before aerial seeding, the soil of the field should be properly kept in moisture (about 30% of the soil moisture). If the field is relatively dry, it needs to be properly irrigated. Weather factors should be considered for UAV aerial broadcasting, and weather with low wind speed should be selected. In case of large crosswinds, the aerial broadcasting operation height can be appropriately reduced, the aerial broadcasting width can be reduced, and the offset compensation in the flight route setting can be considered.
3. Mechanical transplanting
The mechanical transplanting of rapeseed blanket seedlings is an important technology to solve the contradiction between stubble and expand the cultivation of rapeseed in winter idle fields in the south. The seedling density suitable for mechanical transplanting of rapeseed blanket seedlings is about 3000 plants/m2, the seedling height is 80mm-120mm, the seedling age is ≥30 days, the leaf age is 5-8 leaves, and the number of green leaves is 3-4; the seedlings are erect and evenly distributed. , porosity ≤ 10%; the seedlings are robust, the root system is developed, the roots are packed into a blanket, and the seedlings do not break when held up with both hands. Before transplanting, it is advisable to control the absolute moisture content of the substrate (soil) of the seedlings to be greater than or equal to 50%.
In terms of the selection of transplanting equipment, there are currently two types of transplanting machines, one is a fully automatic transplanting machine for rapeseed blanket seedlings powered by the rice transplanter chassis; It is a combined transplanter that integrates the functions of rotary tillage and stubble burial, furrowing, and transplanting suppression. The combined transplanter has stronger adaptability and higher planting quality to the conditions of sticky soil and full straw returning in southern paddy fields.